Medicina e Chirurgia in lingua inglese

Tempo trascorso

1. Childhood obesity is still a problem. This is often blamed on the fact that children have easy access to a range of unhealthy foods and increasingly have more money available to them to spend on fattening and sugarfilled foods. A solution seems obvious – raise the prices of all these foods so that parents will have more control over what their children eat and will find it more economical to buy healthy foods. Unfortunately, this is unlikely to work as the problem is also caused by the fact that unhealthy foods tend to be more convenient and that is what many parents consider when deciding what foods to provide. A wider range of 'ready to eat' healthy food options would be a good start to solving the problem of child obesity. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?

There should be more 'ready to eat' healthy meals available.
Child obesity is still a problem
The price of unhealthy foods should be raised.
Children have too much access to fattening and sugarfilled foods
Parents should have more control over the food that their children eat.
Non so rispondere

2. High profile members of society can raise awareness of worthy causes better than members of the public, because they have their opinions listened to and respected more readily by a larger number of people. Celebrities should not be shy about drawing attention to charities and foundations to which they donate their time and money, because it may encourage other people to do the same. Which one of the following best illustrates the principle underlying the argument above?

People should value their superiors’ opinions on all matters because they have been successful in one or more fields
Directors of companies should encourage their employees to recycle more by visibly doing so themselves.
If your boss does not commit any virtuous acts then neither should you.
Companies with the most employees should be put under pressure to commit to the most social change
If you can help someone else by donating your disposable time and money, it will help improve society
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3. What is a clone but a twin? What is genetic engineering or selective breeding but assisted evolution? How often do we hear these trite excuses for man's arrogant interference with natural processes? Too often. It is time to call a halt and consider just what limits need to be placed on the breakneck progress of biotechnology, if 'progress' is even the right word for it. The big question for science should not be 'What's in it for us?' but 'Could this have happened naturally?' And if the answer is 'No' then we should not bring it about just because we have found that we can. If we do we may live a bit longer or grow more food per acre, but we don't know where our meddling will end. Which one of the following is a principle which underlies the above argument?

Cloning, genetic engineering and selective breeding are not 'progress'
Meddling with nature could only ever end in disaster
It is time to call a halt on biotechnological advances
Science should not progress beyond what is natural
Nature will have its own way in the long run
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4. In recent years there has been increased concern that fashion models reflect an unrealistic and unattainable image of femininity and that this has a negative effect on the selfesteem of many young women. Many major designers continue to design for an exceptionally tall and flatchested female frame. It should be no surprise therefore that there have been several cases recently when designers have favoured male models on their catwalks to model their womenswear. Rather than being a cause of surprise or concern, this should be welcomed as a recognition of the fact that these designs are unsuitable for most women and it draws attention to the major differences between catwalk fashion and clothing for the real world. Which one of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the argument above?

Very few observers noticed initially that the male models were not in fact women.
Some designers have favoured male models simply to generate more media attention for their collections
Some female models struggle to maintain the necessary physique for catwalk modelling
Some designers are recognising that the physique of many catwalk models represents an unhealthy ideal for most women
Surveys of young women have suggested that the use of male models makes the typical model physique less desirable to attain.
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5. The government is considering changing the law to assume consent for the donation of organs after death. People opposed to the idea would have to deliberately 'opt out' of the scheme, although relatives would still be consulted. The supply of healthy organs available for transplant would be vastly increased under this scheme. If the government really wants to improve the lives of people with longterm health problems, this is a measure it must take. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument in the passage above?

Bereaved relatives find donation decisions very distressing
The number of voluntary organ donors is small and not increasing
There would be opposition by civil liberties groups to this measure
Not all of the organs donated are suitable for transplant
It is not known how many people would 'opt out' of the compulsory scheme.
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6. Children born in Japan today can expect to live five years longer than their American counterparts. Life expectancy has been rising in all countries, but the slowest rate of increase has been in the USA. What could account for this, given that the percentage of people who smoke is roughly the same in all rich countries? Of course, the USA is the birthplace of fast food restaurants that sell unhealthy food. Moreover, a recent survey of American lifestyles has found that overeating and failure to exercise are widespread amongst the population. So we must assume that obesity and lack of exercise have caused the USA to lag behind in the increase in life expectancy. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the above argument?

Most rich countries have the same standard of medical expertise
In the 1960s and 1970s the USA had the highest percentage of smokers
Japanese children had a healthier diet in the 1960s than they do today
American fast food restaurants are now found in most rich countries
The USA spends more money on fast food than any other nation
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7. Children need to play in order to develop their thinking skills. When children play, they are merely going through scenarios, working out the consequences and implications of actions, puzzling out what might happen – the very same processes that adults have learned to do in their heads, the process more commonly known as 'thinking'! It follows that thinking and playing are really one and the same thing. Which one of the following best expresses the main conclusion of the above argument?

Playing is just an early version of abstract thinking and reasoning
Children need to be allowed to play in order to develop their thinking skills
Playing and thinking are essentially two forms of the same activity
Children need to be taught how to think about the future
Children who do not play will not be good thinkers
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8. While some animal rights activists have long accepted that there is a link between bovine tuberculosis (TB in cattle) and badgers, others have argued that it was not proven. They felt that the culling of badgers to stop the spread of TB in cattle was not justified if a link was unproven. But direct evidence of the transmission of TB between badgers and cattle has now been found. DNA sequencing of the TB bacteria in cattle and in badgers has shown that the disease crosses species barriers. This latest discovery completely undermines the case of those who have opposed badger culling. To protect farmers from severe loss of their cattle and hence their livelihoods – and to protect one of our primary sources of meat and milk – the badger population should be culled. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument in the passage above?

Animal rights activists are interested in the protection of badgers per se, whatever risk they pose
Not all farmers are convinced that the culling of badgers would stop the spread of TB
There may be factors other than badgers, such as the movement of cattle, which contribute to the spread of TB in cattle
It is too expensive and logistically difficult to vaccinate all cattle against TB.
Badger culling would be unpopular with a substantial number of people
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9. Few linguists would argue against the view that our first language is acquired and not learned. Preschool children do not study their native tongue nor do they learn grammar rules but, by the time they start school at the age of five or six, the vast majority are competent users of their language. Therefore, when learning a second or additional language, studying grammar is a waste of time and all that is required is exposure to the target language in order to acquire competency in its use. Which one of the following identifies the underlying assumption of the above argument?

Acquiring a second or additional language is the same process as acquiring a first language
Only people who know how to read can learn a second or additional language
Children are better at acquiring languages than adults
Learners of second or additional languages should read the target language
Languages are fundamentally different from one another
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10. In 1688 the Irish philosopher William Molyneux asked whether a blind person who regained their vision could recognise by sight an object they had previously only known by touch. Richard Held and Pawan Sinha of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology attempted to answer this question in an experiment with five children in India who had just had successful surgery which gave them their sight for the first time. Within 48 hours of the operation the children were asked to feel a toy block without looking at it. They were then shown two blocks, one of which they had touched. They identified the orginal block just over half of the time and this is only a little better than guesswork. Recognising touched objects by sight alone improved within days. Which one of the following can be drawn as a conclusion of the above passage?

Identifying an object by sight alone which had been touched but not seen previously is innate behaviour and not learned
Identifying an object by sight alone which had been touched but not seen previously is something which children do better than adults
Identifying an object by sight alone which had been touched but not seen previously is something which adults do better than children
Identifying an object by sight alone which had been touched but not seen previously is learned behaviour and not innate
Using children in experiments such as the one described above is morally wrong
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11. My choice of sandwich will depend on its nutritional content as shown in the following table: I want to have at least 20 g of protein in my sandwich and no more than 4 g of fat. Which is the smallest amount that I will pay for my sandwich?

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12. In the foyer of a company in London there are nine clocks showing the local time at each of the company's nine branches. This is how they appear at present: The person in charge of resetting these clocks in March and October has to remember: 1 In Dubai, Singapore and Tokyo clocks remain unchanged all year round. 2 In London, Athens, Chicago and New York clocks are put one hour forward in March and one hour back in October. 3 In Santiago and Sydney clocks are put one hour forward in October and one hour back in March. When these clocks are next reset, which two will show the same time?

Athens and London
New York and Santiago
Chicago and New York
Singapore and Tokyo
Sydney and Tokyo
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13. A factory has received an order for a product. It takes 9 operations to manufacture it. These may take place in any order and at any time in the manufacturing process but an individual worker stays with one operation from its beginning to its end. The number of hours for one worker to complete each operation is as follows: All workers are able to complete all operations, but can only do one at a time. The product has to be ready in 16 hours. What is the minimum number of workers required to manufacture the product in the given time?

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14. A delivery company opens its depot at 7:30 am. It uses large and small vans to make deliveries. The smaller vans take 10 minutes to load and then 1 hour to make the deliveries and return. The larger ones have a loading time of 30 minutes and return from deliveries after 2 hours. The driver of a large van starts loading at 8:00 am. If the driver of a small van is to make the maximum number of deliveries he can, how much later than the driver of the large van can he start loading if they are both to arrive back at the depot for lunch at 1:00 pm?

0 minutes
5 minutes
10 minutes
15 minutes
20 minutes
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15. Below is a picture of a biscuit tin with four identical sides. A set of these tins is to be made that are all distinguishable from each other by colour alone. The manufacturer will paint each of the four sides either red or blue. The top and bottom are not painted. What is the greatest number of different tins that can be made?

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16. In a slalom skiing competition skiers tackle the course one at a time. Each skier makes two runs. The times for the two runs are added and the fastest total time determines the winner. Competitors who fail to finish their first run are not allowed to make a second run. In the second round, skiers compete in the reverse order of their positions after the first round. Grace took part in a slalom competition last week. She was the eighth skier to make her first run. At the end of the first round she was in sixth position, so she had to wait for 17 of her rivals to make their second runs before it was her turn again. Three skiers had failed to complete the course in the first round. How many competitors took part in last week's slalom competition?

Non so rispondere

17. A bakery shop makes its own bread in batches to sell on site. Bakers always describe the quantities of other ingredients as a percentage of the weight of flour used. They will then use the percentages in the table below to calculate how much water, salt and fat are required. Today, the baker is planning to use 250 kg of flour to make White Bread. What is the total weight of the mixture to be made?

182.5 kg
250 kg
323 kg
420 kg
432.5 kg
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18. I have folded a square piece of paper in half, then in half again, then cut three pieces from the resulting smaller square, as indicated below: Which one of the following CANNOT possibly be the appearance of the paper after I unfold it?

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19. This is part of the tiled floor of the magic shop Spell It Out. Five different types of tile make up the design. How many of the tiles have the pattern?

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20. Which of the following is NOT one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World?

The Colossus of Rhodes
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
The Parthenon of Athens
The Lighthouse of Alexandria
The Great Pyramid of Giza
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21. Which of the following countries is NOT a founding member of NATO?

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22. Which row of the table correctly indicates features that are found in both pure extracts of DNA and tRNA molecules?

row 1
row 2
row 3
row 4
row 5
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23. The dipeptide represented below is in aqueous solution. Which numbered bond (1 to 5) needs to be broken (hydrolysed) in this dipeptide to directly form two amino acids?

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24. Which organelle contains RNA but not DNA?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum
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25. The following shows the phases in mitosis. Prophase → Phase two → Anaphase → Phase four Which row in the table below shows the correct processes occurring in Phase two and Phase four of mitosis?

row 1 only
row 2 and row 3 only
row 1 and row 5 only IMAT
row 4 only
row 5 only
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26. Which sequence shows cells of increasing size (from left to right)?

E. coli → onion epidermal cell → human red blood cell
onion epidermal cell → E. coli → human red blood cell
E. coli → human red blood cell → onion epidermal cell
onion epidermal cell → human red blood cell → E. coli
human red blood cell → E.coli → onion epidermal cell
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27. Which option correctly identifies the site of the lightdependent reactions in photosynthesis (S), the hydrogen carrier (H) used and its end state (N)?

S: stroma; H: NADP; N: oxidised
S: stroma; H: NAD; N: reduced
S: stroma; H: FAD; N: oxidised
S: granum; H: NADP; N: reduced
S: granum; H: NAD; N: reduced
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28. An organism is heterozygous for two genes. These two genes make up part of the same DNA molecule. For one gene, E represents the dominant allele, e represents the recessive allele. For the other gene, R represents the dominant allele, r represents the recessive allele. Assuming there is no mutation, at the end of a mitotic division producing two cells which row(s) is/are possible?

row 1 only
row 6 only
rows 2 and 3 only
rows 6 and 7 only
rows 4 and 5 only
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29. An experiment is set up to study two genes. The two genes assort independently and for each gene the expression of alleles involves complete dominance. In the genetic cross RrTt x RrTt, a number of different phenotypes are seen. What is the difference between this number of phenotypes and the number of phenotypes seen when the cross RrTt x rrtt is carried out?

Non so rispondere

30. The diagram represents a whole DNA plasmid that has been cut open using a single restriction enzyme: What are the bases in positions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively?

Non so rispondere
Al termine del quiz è presente la valutazione finale con risposte corrette/errate